Born in Madrid, he was the Spanish ambassador in London between 1802 and 1804. He was able to study in the diplomatic corps thanks to the support of his patron, the Duke of Medinaceli. Before being appointed ambassador he was secretary at the Spanish Embassy in London, an official of the Secretary of State and Minister of State. He earned the Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III and was also known for his contribution to Spanish education, devising a new method for teaching writing in a more rational way than that used until then and immortalised in his book on the subject Arte de escribir por reglas y sin muestras (1781).
Jose Anduaga was the highest representative of the Spanish government in Great Britain when the frigate Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes was sunk and the other ships that were accompanying it were captured. He is renowned for his interpellation to the British government regarding the attack by a non-hostile power and the meeting he had with the British Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lord Harrowby.