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Resistance and new reconquest attempts

The realist resistances after the lost of the main American territories take place in San Juan de Ulúa (Veracruz, Mexico), El Callao (Lima, Peru) and the island of Chiloé at the Pacific Ocean.

Since Mexicos declaration of independence on September 1821 and until the unsuccessful expedition of Isidro Barradas (Canarias, 18th C.-New Orleans, United States, 19th c) a series of resistance events in 1829 take place even more than re-conquest events of the lost territories. In the same year of 1821, the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa at Veracruz will resist in front of the Ejército Trigarante (Army of the Three Guarantees) due to their arrival from Cuba. This occupation will develop until the bombing of the port of Veracruz in 1822 by the Spaniards. From these events on, the fortress will be besieged by earth and sea, establishing patrols to avoid the contacts and the supplying from Cuba. The siege will end in November of the year 1825 with the Spaniards surrendering.

On February 1824 the realist troops hold El Callao. After the loss of Ayacucho, the garrison commanding José Ramón Rodil (Santa Maria de Trobo, Lugo, 1789- Madrid, 1853) resists to the siege at the fortress of the Royal Philippe until January 1826.

There is still other Spanish holding at the pacific, Chiloé Island. In this island close to the Chilean coast there has never been any independent movement, but as the triumph takes place, the island starts to get isolated. In 1819 commands Colonel Antonio de Quintanilla (Pamanes, Cantabria, 1787-Almeria, 1863) and a year after a naval expedition commanded by the British captain Thomas Alexander Cochrane (Annsfield, United Kingdom, 1775-London, United Kingdom), fails. During this time Chiloé is used as headquarter for the realist army that serves at the Pacific. The continuous attacks to the island fail, but at the beginning of 1826 a new expedition disembarks and the capitulations of Colonel Antonio de Quintanilla take place in January 18.

During these years, Spain denies acknowledging the independence of the American territories and reconquest projects are managed. The only attempts that get to be executed are the ones lead by Isidoro Barradas in Mexico and José de Arizábalo (fl. 1827-1829) in Venezuela. In 1829, 3.000 men are sent to a Mexican expedition, commanding the brigadier Isidro Barradas who embarks at Cuba. The expedition departs on July 5 and a week after disembarks in Tampico, occupying the city. Antonio López de Santa Anna protests against the Spaniards and as a result, the expedition has to escape in September.

In Venezuela, an expedition commanded by José de Arizábalo arrives. The expedition, thought by General Captain Miguel de la Torreo from Puerto Rico, gets to the Venezuelan coast in July 1826. José de Arizábalo acts in two ways: first, gathering people discontent with the independence and later, confronting fight in Caracas surroundings. At the end of 1827, he starts an attack against the city, but lack of support makes him withdraw. Finally he will surrender in August 1829

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