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The United States

The United States born as an independent state in 1774 and obtain the English acknowledgement in 1783 with the Treaty of Versailles. The separation of the Thirteen Colonies from its metropolis along with the French Revolution is the role model for the independent movement of the Spanish colonies.

The Spanish movements inside North American territory will be influenced by the enmity between France and England. The tension that was drag at the former English colony appears with the Treaty of San Lorenzo in 1795 where the borders and the navigation along the Mississippi River were established. They also grow with the transferring of The Louisiana to France due to the Treaty of Aranjuez from 1801 and the recovery of Florida from the English.

The United States is the starting point for different freedom expeditions as the ones from Francisco de Miranda in 1806 and from Francisco Javier Mina (Otano, Navarra, 1789-Mexico D.F, 1817) 10 years later. And it is also the place from which different corsairs attack the Spanish ships.

The rotation in the possession of the territories results in a lack of definition about the borders and provokes the invasion of the Western Florida by North Americans. This will make Ferdinand VII to solicit the intervention of England in the conflict. The Royal´s concern is the acknowledgement from North Americas government of the new independent countries.

During the negotiations, a series of events regarding intromission in Spanish territory take place. The signing of The Treaty of Adams-Onis in 1819 establishes the frontier at Lake Sabina and Arkansas until parallel 42º as well as the navigation of common lakes, the cession of the two Floridas, western and eastern, and the relinquishment from soliciting compensations for the damages that the conflict had cause up to date in addition to the definite loss of The Louisiana. In return Spain obtains the complete sovereignty over Texas and withholds California and New Mexico. This treaty will be rectified by the independent Mexico in 1828.

The North American President, James Monroe waited to state his position on the American independence and on his speech to the congress in 1823 will outline his Monroe Doctrine that will be useful for the United States foreign policy: opposition to any future intervention from Europe in American continent as well as no participation from any European affairs.

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