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Philippines

The archipelago depends formally on New Spains viceroyalty, but responds directly to the Peninsula. Due to the great distance that separates both territories, its governor is independent de facto.

Mexicos independence and the cancellation of the location, which came from Mexico, should have sunk Philippines economy, but it didnt. During the 19th Century, Philippine is self-sufficient and exports products like rice, cotton, sugar and abaca. The engine of this recovery is the improvement of trade due to technological and agricultural advancements that push on societies like the Real Compañía de Filipinas.

As the Antilles, the people of Philippines claimed a real Spanish status of its province with a representative at Courts, according to its population and territory. This longing will never be fulfilled. After the independence of Mexico, the Galleon of Manila gets eliminated and it is established direct correspondence between Spain and Philippines.

Between 1830 and 1885, the general governors of the Philippine Islands have unlimited power. The Spanish officers that consider this fate as a punishment are economically compensated and turn their term of office into a series of abuses.

In spite the metroply´s instability, Philippine rises to an economical development as a result of the trade liberation in 1868, the exemption of taxes of products that are exported to Spain, the new route through the Suez Channel and the vapors establishment. As consequence to all of these factors, to the island arrive new Spanish settlers as well as Chinese laborers.

The independence has its origins in a warm liberalism among creoles and wealth people that have studied and traveled around Europe. This group, aware of the great things of independence will work on the spread of their aims for the archipelago and for Madrid through the Hispanic-Philippine Association, soliciting a province statute for Philippines.

Some the facts that start making the people of the island more aware begin in 1872, at the Cavite zone, were a revolt ends with the lives of the Philippine clerics Burgos, Gómez and Zamora.

Someone that stands out on his importance for this movement is José Rizal (Calamba, Philippines, 1861-Manila, Philippines, 1896) son of a Chinese man and a Philippine mother. Educated in Europe, on his return to Philippine he will found the first lodge that will request the reforms of the provinces representation, the end of the religious orders monopoly and the secularization of the parish to more moderate positions. Rizal will be condemned to exile for his vindications and executed in 1896.

In 1892, the Katipunan organization is created that gets to join the Philippines under more radical postulates than Rizal´s ones. As leader is Andrés Bonifacio (Tondo, Philippines, 1863-Monte Buntis, Philippines, 1897) and his goal would be the independence of the country, but he is stopped by the Spanish troops in spite of the Republic of Philippines declaration with capital on Tejeros. After Bonifacio´s death, his successor Emilio Aguinaldo (Cavite, Philippines, 1869- Maila, Philippines, 1964) will proclaim itsel president of the Republic of Philippines in 1897. He won´t achieve the independence, but yes for the Spanish government to accept some reforms.

At the same time, England, Holland, United States and France fight over the control of the southern islands in order to establish their headquarters in this part of the Pacific. In 1898, at the same time that the United States is at war with Spain due to the Cuban conflict, Aguinaldo gets in contact with North American military who promise the independence of Philippines in exchange for the necessary support to weaken the Spaniards. Once Victory took place, the leading American officer stops him from getting into Manila. After the signature of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, were the Philippines and Guam island are transferred to the North Americans, besides Cuba and Puerto Rico, the Philippine rebels declare without any effect, the war to the United States that establish their power until 1946, date in which Philippines gets its independence. Parallel to the Treaty of Paris, Spain sells to Germany the Carolina Islands, the Marianas (except for Guam) and Palaos.

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