The 1795 Treaty of Basel means the cession of Spanish territory of La Española or Saint-Domingue to France. But is not until 1801 when the French are able to occupy the land. In the following years Haiti will reach its independence from France and the former Spanish territory will be a new aim.
The events that took place at the Peninsula in 1808 agitate the people of Saint-Domingue who will upraise against the French occupants. Lead by Juan Sánchez Ramírez (Dominican Republic, 18th c.- ?-1811), the Dominicans achieve their independence from France thanks to the help of the English fleet and returning once again to Spanish Monarchy. The Dominicans discomfort increased due to the bad management of the Spanish authorities. This period of the Dominican history is called La España Boba.
Inefficient administrators for more then 10 straight years lead Saint-Domingue to a great social and economical dismemberment, but it won´t be until 1821 when a revolt lead by José Núñez de Cáceres (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1772- Victoria City, Mexico, 1846) declared the independence of the Spanish territory of Haiti. He tried to protect the new state by engaging it to Bolívar´s Gran Colombia to prevent the invasion of his Haitians neighbors, but this will fail, since the occupation took place months after.
The Haitian army of Jean Pierre Boyer (Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 1776- Paris, France, 1850) invades the new independent territory, starting an occupation period that will extend for 22 years. In 1830 Spain claims once again for this part of the island and at the end of this decade appears a group called La Trinitaria that will defeat the Haitian´s occupants on February 27, 1844, year in which the birth of the Dominican Republic is declared.
Spain will acknowledge the independence with the Treaty of Acknowledgement in 1855, but it will only be effective for 6 years since in 1861 the General Pedro Santana (Hincha, Dominican Republic, 1801-Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1864) will solicit its annexation to Spain. This adherence lasts until 1863 and its the starting point for a series of revolts and war that end in 1865 with the instauration of the Second Republic in Santo Domingo and complete detachment of Spain