El Greco (1541-1614)
An elder Sain Jude Thaddeus looks toward the viewer while leaning on a hallberd, symbol of his martyrdom. According to tradition, he was killed by blows with a mallet at the feet of a statue of Diana. He is usually represented with a mallet, but on occasions this mallet is replaced by a sword or, as is this case, a hallberd.
The technical studies and analysis of the work tells us this painting, as well as the paintings of Saint Andrews, Saint Matthew, Saint Phillip, and Saint Simon, are in an initial execution phase.
Throughout the 16th century we find in Toledo interesting pictorical representations of the 12 apostles. These creations started with the predella of the main altarpiece in the church of Saint Andrew, a work signed by Juan de Borgoña and Antonio de Cremontes, in which the apotles are depicted half-length, in an attitude of dialogue and with a golden brackground. In El Greco's last years the artist renewed the meaning of these series and turned them into a novel production that was no longer destined to occupy a place in the altarpieces. He designed 13 individual paintings with the images of Christ the Saviour and the 12 apostles, cut out on neutral backgrounds, endowed with monumental form and psychological expresiveness. The apostles are covered with tunic and cloak and are accompanied by identifying attributes of each character. In addition to these attributes, El Greco envisaged, for each apostle, chromatic combinations for their clothes and their own gestures that would become codes of identification of the characters.